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  1.  Navigation a website is similar to finding your way around a real, physical, geographical place like a city because the internet is navigated through web “sites”. It is different because the web does not provide concrete spatial and navigational clues.
  2. Some best practices for aiding users in navigating through your web site are to clear navigation aids direct access, simplicity and consistency, design integrity and stability, feedback and dialog, bandwidth and interaction.  Some no-no’s are no dead end pages.
  3. The gestalt theory is the mind’s ability to see unified wholes from the sum of parts.
  4. Some of the best design practices that Lynch and Horton recommend for creating effective, trustworthy, user-friendly web pages are proximity, similarity, continuity, closure, figure-ground relationships, uniform connectedness.
  5. One reason many people find reading on a computer uncomfortable is because of low resolution of the computer screen and awkwardness of scrolling pages.
  6. The inverted pyramid is a method for presenting information where the most important information (represented by the base of the pyramid) is presented first and the least important (the tip) is presented last.
  7. Lynch and Horton practice what they preach by designing their web site based around their principles.


  1. A study found that mixing alcohol and energy drinks has the same effect as taking cocaine.
    The important information is highlighted.  Doesn’t say who performed the study.
  2. Mixing energy drinks with alcohol has the same effect as taking cocaine and alters activity in the adolescent brain which lasts into adulthood.
    Front-load keywords.  Lost importance of including that it was a study.
  3. Purdue University conducted a study on mixing energy drinks and alcohol which had the same effect as taking cocaine and alters activity in the adolescent brain which lasts into adulthood.
    Includes who performed the study and the results.  The sentence has a lot of characters.
  4. Purdue University conducted a study which found that mixing energy drinks and alcohol has the same effect as taking cocaine.
    Removed information that is unnecessary to reduce number of characters.
  5. Purdue University conducted a study that found that mixing energy drinks and alcohol has an effect as severe as cocaine.
    More compelling argument.

Reading Response “Twitter Postings:. Iterative Design” And “Writing For Social Media”

Nielson’s overarching concern is to post his message at a good time when it reaches the most customers.  He also believes tweets should be highly focused and try not to make multiple points.  He resigned the tweet multiple times to create a good message.

In the first design he removed the non information word announcing because it was unnecessary.  In the second design the keywords were at the front.  However removing announcing lost the sense of news.  In the third design he added month highlights.  However the draft tweet was 133 characters.  In the fourth design they saved 6 characters by adding a colon.  In the fifth design he changed some words.

Some of the best practices are to use casual style for business messages.  RSS feeds should be business-like.  Use a simple user interface.  Business should not post too often because it can get very annoying to the users.

Nielson practices what he preaches.  He keeps his messages specific.  he also tweets at a time when the most customers will see the message.




Both the verbal and the visual elements add to the storytelling.  If the reader only had the verbal portion of the story then they would be confused as to who is who and what their part of the story is.  By adding the visual elements, the reader can see who is talking and what they become later in life.  Without these visuals we would not who is talking and the person they become when they are older.  Pearson also shows emotion on the faces of the characters which would be hard to know without the visual elements.  The verbal elements add explanation to why they are displaying these emotions.


The graphic novel took the information from the report and condensed it down with only the important details.  A graphic novel can report things that a government report cannot.  The graphic novel can clearly show whats happening while the report can’t.  We can see the response  of the passengers in the graphic novel while the report can only describe their responses.  The graphic novel creates a picture instead of forcing the reader to visualize the scene on their own.  Information in the graphic novel is informal and the report is formal.  The graphic novel is much more interesting to the viewer.  Jacobson and Colon were trying to reach a larger audience with the graphic novel.   They also wanted to decrease the size of the original text.  By remediating the report this way they reach a larger audience and inform more people of what happened that day.


  1. The most popular explanation outside universities for why academics suck at writing is that bad writing is a deliberate choice.  The most popular explanation inside universities for why academics suck at writing is that difficult writing is unavoidable because of the abstractness and complexity of the subject.  In Pinker’s opinion the two major contributors to the poor quality of academics’ writing are the Curse of Knowledge and there are few incentives for writing well.
  2. The six obnoxious attributes of the “self-conscious style” are metadiscourse, professional narcissism, apologizing, shudder quotes, hedging, metaconcepts and nominalizations.
  3. I am prone to some of these attributes in my own writing.  I sometimes use hedging in my writing.  I can fix this by qualifying the statement.
  4. I value professionalism most in another writers style.


  1.  The authors create an ethos of reliability in their reports through citing credible sources throughout the report and being knowledgeable on their topic.  Forman cites interviews that he conducted to improve his credibility.
  2. Both authors use situation, purpose, and location in their essays.  They use them to their advantage to explain the problem and give a solution.  Forman specifically states locations and their situation in his essay.
  3. Forman and Pollan want you to view food production and agriculture in America differently.  Forman argues that instead of having large farms that specialize in producing one thing, there should be several smaller integrated farms that would produce the same number of products.  Farms should resemble independent ecosystems.  Both author’s mixture of reporting and argument compare with what we are tasked with doing in the Mapping the Problem Essay.  We have report on a problem that we have researched and provide solutions to that problem.  We have to argue why we think that solution would eliminate or lessen the problem.

Navigating genres reading response

Before reading Dirk’s essay, I would have defined a genre as like a theme or something.  Examples of genres include mystery, action, horror, etc.  I always thought of genres as being somewhat useful to categorize information.

After reading Dirk’s essay, I would redefine genre as when someone happens that requires a response, someone has to create that response, and when the situation occurs again, another person uses the original first response for the basis of a second response.  Eventually everyone who encounters this situation bases their response on the previous response.

Genre is a system of basing a response to a situation on a previous response to that situation.  My metaphor is a useful way to explain what genres do be because it explains what a genre is.



I previously learned that plagiarism is stealing someone else’s work and claiming it as your own.  Plagiarism is bad because you are stealing someone’s work.  You can avoid plagiarism by giving credit for sources used in your work.

The five types of normal plagiarism are word for word plagiarism, paraphrasing plagiarism, plagiarism of secondary sources, plagiarism of the form of a source, plagiarism of ideas, and plagiarism of authorship.  Word for word plagiarism is copying from a published source without using quotation marks, giving credit, or both.  Paraphrasing plagiarism is when some words are changed but not enough are changed.  Plagiarism of secondary sources can occur when someone gives credit to original materials but never looks them up, and they were obtained from a secondary source that was not cited.  Plagiarism of the form of a source occurs when the structure of the use of an argument in a source is used without giving proper credit.  Plagiarism of ideas occurs when an original idea from another is used without giving credit.  Plagiarism of authorship occurs when putting someone’s name on someone else’s work.

Sometimes students plagiarize because they do not know how to copy from sources with proper acknowledgement.  Students may be taught to copy without giving acknowledgement in high school and this problem continues in higher education.  Institutionalized plagiarism is found in bureaucracies and ghostwriting.  Institutionalized plagiarism is different from competitive plagiarism which is found in academics.  Competitive plagiarism is used to gain undue credit.  institutionalized plagiarism occurs in bureaucracies.  Martin says competitive plagiarism is given too much attention and the penalties are extreme.  He also says that institutionalized plagiarism should be given more attention.

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